Tier 1

Main suppliers to OEMs or car makers, typically responsible for assembling complex systems within the vehicle, such as the engine, gearbox, wiring loom, brake system, etc. Second level of the Automotive industry supply chain.

Tier 2

Responsible for smaller systems, bespoke processes, task-specific software or components. Tier 2 suppliers work closely with multiple Tier 1 suppliers, and may even be part of the same company. For example, Autoliv is a major steering wheel manufacturer (as a Tier 2 – to many other Tier 1s) and also… read more

Tier 3

Considered to be outside the active supply chain, these companies provide raw materials (such as steel, silicon, carbon fibre, paint, etc) to Tier 2 manufacturers. It is rare for Tier 3 companies to be visible as their products are generic and applicable to any industrial manufacturing process.  As such, they… read more

Time of flight

Range imaging camera system that resolves distance based on the known speed of light, measuring the time-of-flight of a light signal between the camera and the subject for each point of the image. ToF camera modules are slightly more expensive than camera modules, however offer much lower resolution. The time-of-flight… read more


Traveller Information Services Association is a membership association to implement traffic and travel information services and products based on existing standards, including primarily RDS-TMC and TPEG technologies.

Traffic Jam Assist – TJA

Helps keep distance from other vehicles and adapts speed and optionally takes control of steering in lower-speed, dense traffic situations. Traffic Jam Assist is based on the sensors and mechanics of automatic Cruise control, Stop and Go engine control and Lane Keeping Assistance. This relieves drivers so they can focus… read more

Traffic Light Recognition

Detects traffic light state (proceed, prepare to stop and stop) using a camera to identify traffic lights by looking at shape, colour and position. This may be combined with navigation data, augmented by satellite navigation position (GNSS / GPS) to ensure the correct traffic light is intepreted in busy or… read more

Traffic Sign Recognition

A Traffic Sign Recognition system is a camera-based technology that detects and analyses the traffic signs next to the road. Speed limit signs can for instance be used to control speed of the vehicle. Often the important traffic signs are shown on the dashboard in order to inform the driver…. read more

Tyre Pressure Monitoring System

Wireless sensors inside tyres to help you maintain your vehicle or detect a failure. Direct sensors are small, wireless devices inside each tyre, which report the tyre’s pressure reading to your dashboard. Indirect sensors work by measuring wheel spin and can only tell if a tyre’s pressure is low.


Type of short-range sensor using high frequency sound to measure distance to an object. Very low cost, often bumper mounted at rear and (less often) front and side of vehicles at low levels.  Main applications include low speed manoeuvring, parking and proximity alerts.  Typical range is below 10 metres.